Note on Sources and Methodology
The illiteracy rate in Brazil remained well above 50 per cent
throughout the period covered in this book.!
I
have therefore
been concerned with studying the views on race expressed by
the spokesmen of the Brazilian elite-almost all of whom were
members of the tiny minority that enjoyed the privilege of higher
education within this largely illiterate society.2 Spokesmen for
the elite were considered to be the intellectuals (defined below),
politicians, and government public relations men. I have not ex-
amined systematically the works of fiction writers or the techni-
cal works of scientists.
My selection of authors is based on an initial reading of the
major secondary works on Brazilian social thought for the pe-
riod.3 Most helpful were Gilberto Freyre, Ordem e progresso, 2
vols. (Rio de Janeiro, 1959), Dante Moreira Leite, 0 Carater na-
cional brasileiro: Hist6ria de uma ideologia, 2nd edition. (Sao
Paulo, 1969), Brito Broca, A Vida literaria no Brasil: 1900, 2nd
edition. (Rio de Janeiro, 1960), Fernando Azevedo, Brazilian
Culture (New York, 1950), Joao Cruz Costa, A History of Ideas
in Brazil (Berkeley, Calif., 1964), and Roque Spencer Maciel de
Barros, A
Ilustra~ao
brasileira e a ideia de universidade (Sao
Paulo, 1959). I also found useful the judgments expressed by the
editors of anthologies such as Djacir Menezes, ed., 0 Brasil no
pensamento brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1957), and Luis Washing-
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