1. I have not discussed the many parallels between race-thinking
Brazil and the rest of Latin America. In general, Spanish America
(especially Argentina and Mexico) has received more attention from
North American students of intellectual history than Brazil. Martin
Stabb includes race as one of the central themes in his excellent analysis
of the writings of the Spanish American essayists who diagnosed the
"sick continent" in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Martin S. Stabb, In Quest of Identity: Patterns in the Spanish American
Essay of Ideas, 1890-1960 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1967). For discussion
of the attitudes of Mexican intellectuals toward race before the Revolu-
tion of 1910, see T. G. Powell, "Mexican Intellectuals and the Indian
Question, 1876--1911," Hispanic American Historical Review, XLVIII
(No.1, Feb. 1968), 19-36; and William D. Raat, "Los intelectuales, el
positivismo y la question indigena," Historia Mexicana, XX (Jan.-Mar.
1971) 412-27. For the cases of Argentina and Chile" there is much
valuable information on elite attitudes toward race in Carl Solberg,
Immigration and Nationalism: Argentina and Chile, 1890-1914 (Aus-
2. The manifesto is reprinted in Osvaldo Melo Braga, Bibliografia
de loaquim Nabuco [Instituto Nacional do Livro:
B 1: Bibli-
ografia, VIII] (Rio de Janeiro, 1952). The quotation is on page 17.
1. Sources on Brazilian church history are few. The most authori-
tative secondary source for this period is George C. A. Boehrer, "The
Church in the Second Reign, 1840-1889," in Henry H. Keith and S. F.
Edwards, eds., Conflict and ContinUity in Brazilian Society (Columbia,
S.C., 1969), 113-40. A considerable amount of information may be