I have accrued many debts since this study began in the mid-1960's.
Among the friends who have given me great help in finding sources
are Vamireh Chacon, Antonio Candido, Jose Honorio Rodrigues,
and Brady Tyson. Alexandre Euhllio and Francisco de Assis Bar-
bosa spent many hours patiently introducing me to the history of
Brazilian thought, and giving critical reactions to earlier versions
of these ideas. Help came from other colleagues who exist now
only in the realm of memory: George C. A. Boehrer, Luiz Washing-
ton Vita, Cavalcanti
Proen~a, Louren~o
Filho, and Araujo Ribeiro.
A very different version of this book was seen in manuscript by a
number of friends. Extremely useful comments were sent by Nancy
Stepan, Donald Cooper, Robert Toplin, Joseph Love, John Wirth,
Fabio Lucas, and Harold Davis. Three Brazilian friends who have
helped at every stage of the research and sent invaluable comments
on drafts were Francisco Iglesias, Alberto Venancio Filho, and
Joao Cruz Costa. Since none of these friends saw the final (much
revised) manuscript, they can hardly be implicated in any of my
interpretative or factual vagaries. This disclaimer is worth stress-
ing because I am acutely conscious of the irony involved in a study
of Brazilian race-thinking coming from a country whose racial atti-
tudes constitute one of the twentieth century's most destructive his-
Consultations in the Oliveira Lima Library at the Catholic Uni-
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