Introduction: Theorizing Black Venus
Abelard, Les Lettres completes, fifth letter, pp. 87, 89-90. My trans-
2. See Edward Ahearn, "Black Woman,White Poet." See also Jan Ned-
erven Pieterse's mention of Baudelaire in his abbreviated discussion of
Black Venus images in French literature, art, and popular culture. Pieterse
also provides an abbreviated analysis of Bartmann in White on Black, pp.
3. Williams and Chrisman, eds., Colonial Discourse, p. 194.
4. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, pp. 109-40.
5. Hayward, French National Cinema, pp. 119-49.
6. For more on colonial cinema, its uses and the era, see Coquery-
Vidrovitch, "Le Cinema colonial"; Nesterenko, "L'Afrique de l'autre";
Sorlin, "The Fanciful Empire"; Abel, French Cinema; Williams, Republic
7. Hayward, French National Cinema, pp. 119-49.
8. Dina Sherzer's "Race Matters and Matters of Race: Interracial Re-
lationships in Colonial and postcolonial Films," in her edited volume
Cinema, Colonialism, Postcolonialism, is perhaps the latest exception
among "French" academic feminist film critics in the United States. Bou-
langer's Le Cinema colonial mentions the work but does not examine
how representations of black women in particular functioned in colonial
cinema. Baker is examined as a colonial Other, but not especially as a
black female colonial Other.
9. Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, pp. 110-11.
10. See Mulvey, Visual and Other Pleasures, p. 19.
Morrison, Playing in the Dark, p.7.
12. Ibid., p. 7.
13. Roberts, Whores in History, pp. 33-54.