NOTES
Introduction
1 William Wells Brown, The Escape, 37–60.
2 Ibid., 56–57.
3 Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death.
4 Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk.
5 Spillers, ‘‘Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe,’’ 257–79. Spillers argues that the mythically
rendered black body operates as a signifier that ‘‘has no movement in a field of
signification’’ (259, emphasis added).
6 Du Bois, Souls, 5. Elin Diamond, Unmaking Mimesis, 52. Bertolt Brecht, ‘‘Aliena-
tion E√ects in Chinese Acting,’’ ‘‘A Short Organum for the Theatre,’’ in Willett,
Brecht on Theatre. It should be noted that there are many distinctions I am
drawing between Afro-alienation acts and Brechtian alienation-e√ects. For in-
stance, unlike Brecht, who imagined that audiences might indeed ‘‘awaken’’ to
history through gestic performance in theatre, I presume in my work that most
audiences were less willing to recognize the ways that black cultural producers
negotiated identity polyvalence in performance. Nineteenth-century dominant
spectators were less inclined to read the ways that these figures were critically
complicating perceptions of race and gender by way of performance.
7 Diamond reminds us that ‘‘demystifying representation, showing how and when
the object of pleasure is made, releasing the spectator from imaginary and il-
lusory identifications—these are crucial elements in Brecht’s theoretical project’’
(Unmaking Mimesis, 44); Herman Gray, Cultural Moves; Hartman, Scenes of
Subjection. See also Paul Gilroy, ‘‘To Be Real’’; Fred Moten, In the Break; Eric Lott,
Love and Theft.
8 Carla Peterson, ‘‘Foreword: Eccentric Bodies,’’ xi–xii; emphasis added. Robin
D. G. Kelley, Freedom Dreams; Stuart Hall, ‘‘What Is This ‘Black’ in Black Popular
Culture?,’’ 32.
9 Gilroy, The Black Atlantic; Joseph Roach, Cities of the Dead; Hartman, Scenes of
Subjection; Jennifer Brody, Impossible Purities; Lott, Love and Theft; David Kras-
ner, Resistance; Eric Sundquist, To Wake the Nations; Carla Peterson, ‘‘Doers of the
Word.’’
NOTES
Introduction
1 William Wells Brown, The Escape , 37–60.
2 Ibid., 56–57.
3 Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death .
4 Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk .
5 Spillers, ‘‘Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe,’’ 257–79. Spillers argues that the mythically
rendered black body operates as a signifier that ‘‘has no movement in a field of
signification ’’ (259, emphasis added).
6 Du Bois, Souls , 5. Elin Diamond, Unmaking Mimesis , 52. Bertolt Brecht, ‘‘Aliena-
tion E√ects in Chinese Acting,’’ ‘‘A Short Organum for the Theatre,’’ in Willett,
Brecht on Theatre. It should be noted that there are many distinctions I am
drawing between Afro-alienation acts and Brechtian alienation-e√ects. For in-
stance, unlike Brecht, who imagined that audiences might indeed ‘‘awaken’’ to
history through gestic performance in theatre, I presume in my work that most
audiences were less willing to recognize the ways that black cultural producers
negotiated identity polyvalence in performance. Nineteenth-century dominant
spectators were less inclined to read the ways that these figures were critically
complicating perceptions of race and gender by way of performance.
7 Diamond reminds us that ‘‘demystifying representation, showing how and when
the object of pleasure is made, releasing the spectator from imaginary and il-
lusory identifications—these are crucial elements in Brecht’s theoretical project’’
( Unmaking Mimesis , 44); Herman Gray, Cultural Moves ; Hartman, Scenes of
Subjection. See also Paul Gilroy, ‘‘To Be Real’’; Fred Moten, In the Break ; Eric Lott,
Love and Theft.
8 Carla Peterson, ‘‘Foreword: Eccentric Bodies,’’ xi–xii; emphasis added. Robin
D. G. Kelley, Freedom Dreams ; Stuart Hall, ‘‘What Is This ‘Black’ in Black Popular
Culture?,’’ 32.
9 Gilroy, The Black Atlantic ; Joseph Roach, Cities of the Dead ; Hartman, Scenes of
Subjection ; Jennifer Brody, Impossible Purities ; Lott, Love and Theft ; David Kras-
ner, Resistance ; Eric Sundquist, To Wake the Nations ; Carla Peterson, ‘‘ Doers of the
Word.’’
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