1. All ﬁrst-year residents have already completed their M.D. This book uses pseudo-
nyms for all actors, who I interviewed or observed. Occasionally, it uses real
names when the speaker made a public statement, such as a speech or published
document. To better preserve my informants’ anonymity, I often do not locate
them with respect to the hospitals where they worked. The di√erences between
academic medical centers in the United States and Canada were small at this level
of practice. I have tried to point out relevant variations where they occur.
2. Classical and modern versions of the Hippocratic Oath can be found at classics.mit
www.indiana.edu/≈ancmed/oath.htm; and http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/doc
tors/oathemodern.html (accessed August 12, 2008).
3. Embodied learning may be described in terms of cognitive science and mental
models in part because of the relative impoverishment of language describing
learning by bodily means. Learning by touch, hearing, smell, and other sensory
modalities may simply lack vocabulary. However, I would argue that this strength-
ens my contention that a Euro-American cultural bias privileges sight and cogni-
4. Merleau-Ponty uses the term ‘‘perceptual syntax’’ (2002, 42) to argue that the
perceptual ﬁeld—those conditions that structure perception—must be consti-
tuted before they can become accessible to judgment. Similarly, I use the phrase to
suggest that cultural assumptions and training structure a physician’s perception.
5. Some scholarly work claimed that Joseph Paul Jernigan, the death-row inmate
whose body became the Visible Human Male, agreed to the procedure to avoid
death in the electric chair. This claim (see Csordas 2001; Van Dijck 2005) is false.
Texas has executed prisoners exclusively by lethal injection since 1982. Jernigan’s
lawyer suggested that, although Jernigan had signed an organ donor card, he had
no idea how his body would be used (Kasics 2003).
6. Although funding for medical care in the United States is dramatically di√erent
from that in Canada, far fewer di√erences exist at the level of training. Canadian
and American surgeons regularly trade residents and fellows across borders, and
important techniques are studied by all. I suspected that Canadian surgeons may