I wish to thank the people who work the stacks—the sta√s of the A
chives of the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, the Univers
of Pittsburgh’s Archives Service Center, Frick Fine Arts Library, and Sp
cial Collections Library, the Pennsylvania Department and Scienc
Technology Department of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the A
bert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University
Virginia, the Saint Vincent College Library, and the interlibrary lo
departments of the University of North Carolina’s Davis Library a
Susquehanna University’s Blough-Weis Library. I gratefully acknow
edge research and travel funding from the Department of History of t
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Susquehanna Universit
School of Arts, Humanities, and Communications, and an Albert Be
eridge Research Grant from the American Historical Association.
The book has benefited greatly from critiques by Peter Filene, Le
Fink, Jerma Jackson, and Judith Farquhar. Portions of this work ha
appeared previously in the Journal of Social History, the Pennsylvan
Magazine of History and Biography, and the Journal of the Gilded A
and Progressive Era. The respective editors, Peter Stearns, Tamara Mill
and Alan Lessof, o√ered great patience and guidance, along with t
helpful suggestions of anonymous reviewers. I also thank colleagu
with whom I have discussed my work at conferences of the Penns
vania Historical Association, the Popular/American Culture Assoc
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