A work of this scope required support from numerous institutions, grants,
and individuals, all of whom distinguished themselves with their generos-
ity. The University of Connecticut at Storrs supplied summer grants, pre-
doctoral fellowships, and a doctoral research grant from the university’s re-
search foundation that proved crucial to the early stages of this project. The
William F. Fulbright Overseas Research Grant program enabled me to spend
a year plumbing the archives of Panama and interviewing scores of Pana-
manians, West Indians, and Zonians, without which this study would have
been impossible. Five presidential libraries awarded me research and travel
grants: the Harry S. Truman Library Institute, the Eisenhower World Aff airs
Institute, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, the Lyndon Baines John-
son Foundation, and the Gerald R. Ford Library Foundation. The Society of
Historians of American Foreign Relations generously awarded me the Ber-
nath Research Travel Grant and the W. Stull Holt Dissertation Fellowship.
Marquette University, my new home, continued to fund this project gener-
ously with summer fellowships and research grants.
Numerous scholars in the United States off ered advice and counsel dur-
ing this project, including David Sheinin, Stephen Rabe, Mark Gilderhus,
Gilbert Joseph, Emily Rosenberg, Blanca Silvestrini, Eileen Suárez Findlay,
Darlene Rivas, Michael L. Conniff , Stephen Streeter, Doug Little, Mark
Overmyer- Velasquez, James Howe, Gloria Rudolf, Luis Figue roa, Robert
McMahon, Kyle Longley, Jana Lipman, John Lindsay- Poland, Marixa Llasso,
Cornelia Dayton, Mark Lawrence, Alan McPherson, and Peter Szok. Elizabeth
Mahan made all the facilities and talents of University of Connecticut’s Latin
American Studies Program available to me as well as her own sage and hu-
mane advice. I am also indebted to Laurietz Seda, MacGregor O’Brien, Steve
Wille, and Augustana College and
Summer in the Andes program
for greatly improving my Spanish prior to research in Panama. In Panama I
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