1. Arosemena G., Historia Documental, 173– 89; Beluche Mora, Acción Comunal; Escobar, Ar-
nulfo Arias o el credo Panameñista.
2. Chamberlain, Decolonization; Shipway, Decolonization and Its Impact; Kruse and Tuck, The
Fog of War; Winant, The World Is a Ghetto; Griswold del Castillo, World War II and Mexican Civil
Rights; Borstelmann, The Cold War and the Color Line; Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights.
3. Donnan and Wilson, Borders; Truett, Fugitive Landscapes.
4. Adelman and Aron, “From Borderlands to Borders”; Taylor, The Divided Ground; Bannon,
The Spanish Borderlands Frontier.
5. Seegel, Mapping Europe’s Borderlands; Okun, The Early Roman Frontier on the Upper Rhine Area.
6. Moff at, The Wall; Gold, Stone in Spain’s Shoe; Thornhill, The Road to Suez; Baker, Crossroads;
Lipman, Guantánamo. The Spanish outposts at Ceuta and Melilla in North Africa form another
example of noncontiguous borderlands; see Carabaza and de Santos, Melilla y Ceuta.
7. Diener and Hagan, Borderlines and Borderlands.
8. LaFeber, The Panama Canal; Conniff , Panama and the United States; Major, Prize Possession.
9. Census of the Panama Canal Zone, 1960; Annual Report of the Panama Canal Company and the
Canal Zone Government 1960.
10. Shaw, Colonial Inscriptions, 1.
11. Geertz, “Thick Description,” in The Interpretation of Cultures, 3– 29.
12. For the role of memory in historical constructions, see Burke, “History as Social Mem-
ory”; Hutton, History as the Art of Memory; Irwin- Zarecka, Frames of Remembrance.
Chapter 1: Borderland on the Isthmus
1. For sex through the fence, James Reid, U.S. businessman in Panama, interview with
author, Balboa, Republic of Pa namá (RP), April 30, 2001; Enrique Cantera, retired laborer,
interview with author, April 16, 2001; William Thrush, retired U.S. Army sergeant, interview
with author, Balboa, RP, November 21, 2001; Memorandum: “Prostitutes Near Zone Borders,”
Jeff ries to Randolph, February 10, 1964, File 250.1 (Unusual Incidents); Offi ce of the Provost
Marshal (opm), Record Group (rg) 349, National Archives and Records Administration
(nara), College Park, Maryland.
2. For Puerto Rican presence in the Panama garrison, see Memorandum: Puerto Rican
Recruitment in U.S. Army Caribbean,” July 1, 1960, Headquarters U.S. Caribbean Command