Notes

Introduction
I.
The term Creole of Color was not used in Louisiana during the Spanish period
and acquired its distinct meaning in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Colo-
nial documents sometimes refer to a person, usually someone of Mrican ancestry,
as a "creole of Jamaica:' "creole of Martinique:' "creole of Louisiana:' etc., meaning
a native of that particular place. Throughout the New World, creole was applied to
anyone of European or African ancestry born in the Americas. For further discussion
of the evolving and distinct meaning of the capitalized term Creole in Louisiana,
see Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development ofAfro-
Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University
Press,
1992),
pp.
157-59;
Joseph G. Tregle Jr., "Creoles and Americans:' in Creole
New Orleans: Race and Americanization) ed. Arnold R. Hirsch and Joseph Logsdon
(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press,
1992),
pp.
136-41.
2.
For a definition of upstreaming see Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indi-
ans) Empires) and Republics in the Great Lakes Region)
1650-1815
(New York: Cambridge
University Press,
1991),
p. xiv, and Inga Clendinnen, Ambivalent Conquests: .Maya and
Spaniard in Yucatan)
1517-1570
(New York: Cambridge University Press,
1987),
pp.
132-33.
Even as recently as
1994
works on the Creoles have appeared that contribute
much to our understanding of nineteenth-century populations but slight the eigh-
teenth century. Carl A. Brasseaux, Keith P. Fontenot, and Claude F. Oubre in their
book Creoles of Colur in the Bayou Country (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi,
1994)
fill a major void for the southern and southwestern regions of Louisiana but,
after a few pages discussing the origins of this population in the colonial era, devote
most of the work to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The main limitations
af-
fecting eighteenth-century studies concern the availability of source materials, their
dispersal into many archives, and the need to be familiar with both French and Span-
ish paleography. To be fair, however, this lack of knowledge about pre-nineteenth-
century slave societies is common for most regions of the Americas, including Vir-
ginia, South Carolina, Brazil, and the Caribbean, for many of the same reasons.
3.
Arnold A. Sio identifies this process in the British Caribbean: "By the late
eighteenth century, the larger society was aware that the free coloured had begun to
develop a separate identity and were becoming a solitary people" ("Marginality and
Free Coloured Identity in Caribbean Slave Society:' in Caribbean Slave Society and
Economy) ed. Hilary Beckles and Verene Shepherd [Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle
Publishers,
1991],
p.
153).
177
Previous Page Next Page