Notes
Introduction
1. Boris Fausto, A Concise History of Brazil, trans. Arthur Brakel (Cambridge: Cam-
bridge University Press, 1999), 283.
2. See Marcelo Ridente, Em Busca do Povo Brasileiro: artistas da revolução, do cpc à
era da tv (Rio de Janeiro: Record, 2000).
3. Zuenir Ventura, 1968: O ano que não terminou (Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira,
1988) gives a broad account of the repression of the student movement, censorship
of the press, and the aggressive actions taken against actors, filmmakers, singers, and
composers. Luiz Carlos Maciel, Geração em transe: memórias do tempo do tropicalismo
(Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1996) focuses on theater, cinema, and music. He-
loísa Buarque de Hollanda, Impressões de Viagem: cpc, Vanguarda e Desbunde: 1960/70
(Rio de Janeiro: Rocco, 1992) takes into consideration the developments in marginal
poetry and literature at the time, especially its relationship to the countercultural
movement of the 1960s. Christopher Dunn, Brutality Garden: Tropicália and the Emer-
gence of a Brazilian Counterculture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,
2001) focuses on the countercultural musical movement Tropicália, from the late
1960s.
4. In São Paulo, the short- lived Grupo Rex (June 1966–May 1967), composed of the
artists Geraldo de Barros, Carlos Fajardo, Wesley Duke Lee, Nelson Leirner, Frederico
Nasser, and José Resende, was also interested in creating new strategies to question
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