1 See, for example, ‘‘M. Chirac et M. Schröder défendent ‘le modèle social européen’
à côté du président polonais,’’ Le Monde, May 21, 2005; ‘‘Verbatim: ‘Je m’engage à
faire vivre et progresser le modèle français,’ ’’ Le Monde, June 2, 2005; Guelaud,
‘‘Les ressorts du non, 3. Promotion sociale—le modèle social français est à bout de
souΔe,’’ Le Monde, June 3, 2005. As scholars have noted, the concept of the ‘‘Euro-
pean model of society’’ is at least in part an abstraction, inasmuch as the model
varies tremendously from country to country according to employment levels and
forms of social protection. See, for instance, Ross, ‘‘The eu Crisis in a Di√erent
2 Marshall, Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays.
3 Recently feminist scholars have begun to consider supplanting Marshall’s three
stages/categories of citizenship with an additional category of ‘‘economic citizen-
ship,’’ lifting the rights to work and subsistence from the civil and social categories
of citizenship, in the interest of framing policies that address economic justice. See
Kessler-Harris, ‘‘In Pursuit of Economic Citizenship’’; Kessler-Harris, In Pursuit of
Equity; and Lewis, ‘‘Economic Citizenship.’’
4 Siim, ‘‘Welfare State, Gender Politics, and Equality Policies,’’ 179.
5 See Rosanvallon, Le sacre du citoyen. French women only achieved the important
civil right to bodily integrity in 1975, when they won reproductive rights.
6 Nord points to both the importance and the limits of pre-1914 state-sponsored
initiatives in ‘‘The Welfare State in France: 1870–1914.’’ Janet Horne discussed the
importance of the Musée social in the rise of the French welfare state in the
nineteenth century in A Social Laboratory for Modern France.
7 See, for example, Ewald, Histoire de l’état-providence; Stewart, Women, Work and
the French State, 1878–1919; and Baldwin, The Politics of Social Solidarity. Pedersen,
Family, Dependence, and the Welfare State in France and Britain, 1914–1945, dis-
cusses how the state assumed control of family allowances that began as private