1. Bruno’s name and nickname have been changed, as have the names of all the
individuals he comes into contact with.
2. For that conversation, see Gay, Lucia, 93–100.
3. Arias, The Rigoberta Menchú Controversy.
1. The navy is the oldest branch of the Brazilian military. Its origins can be traced to
the transfer of the Portuguese crown to Brazil in 1808 in the wake of Napoleon
Bonaparte’s invasion of the Iberian peninsula.
2. The Brazilian military has recruited heavily from the Afro- Brazilian population,
in no small part because all Brazilian men aged eighteen are required to register
for military service. The problem is that few such recruits have progressed
through the ranks. The leadership of the armed forces remains predominantly
white and denies that race is a factor, arguing that the relative position of blacks
and whites has more to do with social class than with discrimination and preju-
dice and that each candidate is judged solely on the basis of his or her merit (the
armed forces began admitting women in the 1980s). For issues of recruitment,
see Kuhlmann, “O serviço militar.”
3. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, which has administered
the census since 1940, places Brazilians in ﬁve racial categories based on self-
identiﬁcation: branco (white), pardo (brown), preto (black), amarelo (yellow), and
indigenous. In 2000, 91,298,042 Brazilians classiﬁed themselves as branco,
65,318,092 as pardo, 10,554,336 as preto, 761,583 as amarelo, and 734,127 as