I am indebted to a number of people and institutions, who, at various
stages of this project, gave generously their encouragement and support.
Foremost are the people of South, without whose assistance and friend-
ship this study would not have been possible. Special appreciation goes to:
Mati Ramroop, the Ramroop family, the Rooplal family, the Ballyram
family, the Ramlakhan family, Aqila and Willie Khan and family, Nana
Umraw, Baby Pathay and family, the Rajoon family, Maulana Dr. Wafﬁe
Mohammed and family, Shaﬁna Karim, Imam Skip and family, Imam
Dixie and family, Jennifer Khan and family, B. J. Ballyram, Joyce Lalla,
Jainsee Sampath, Mimo and Frank Karim, the Ganpat family, and the
Umraw family. The Ramroops, Rooplals, Ballyrams, Ramlakhans, and
Rajoons have remained especially close friends, inviting me, another
‘‘aunty,’’ into their extended kindred.
Northward, I was greatly aided by Angela Harper, Austin Corbie, Mar-
jorie ‘‘Moms’’ Hazel, the Latchman family, and Ravi-Ji. At the University
of the West Indies, St. Augustine, deserving special mention is Rhoda
Reddock, whose scholarship and generosity are consistently inspiring;
several other faculty have also been both agreeable colleagues and
scholars to emulate: Bridget Brereton, Ken Parmasad, Kusha Haraksingh,
Kelvin Singh, and Brinsley Samaroo. Finally, I have received indispensable
assistance from the staff at the University of the West Indies library, the
National Archives, and the Central Statistical Ofﬁce.
Outside Trinidad, as well, I have beneﬁted from support and intellec-
tual inspiration. Eric R. Wolf was my mentor, my advisor, and believed in
me from the start. I hope I conveyed to him how important that was, as I
navigated my way through the strange cultural terrain of the academy.
And in trying to do justice to all that he taught me, I also hope this book