1 ‘‘El último de los periodistas independientes, el más humilde de todos, abandona
hoy la pluma para empuñar la espada en defensa de los derechos del pueblo.’’
Catarino Garza, ‘‘Proclama,’’ Colección de Porfirio Díaz, Universidad Ibero-
americana, Mexico City (hereafter cited as cpd), leg. 16, docs. 10951, 11418. If
not included in the text, all Spanish-language quotes are given in the notes. To be
as faithful to the original as possible, I have kept the original spelling and accents,
which frequently do not conform to today’s standard.
2 ‘‘Versos de despedida,’’ collected in Brownsville in the 1980s, in Celso Garza
Guajardo, ed., En busca de Catarino Garza (Monterrey, Mexico: Universidad
Autónoma de Nuevo León, 1898), 53. It is not clear when this corrido first ap-
peared or where it circulated. Sound recordings of several corridos about the
Garza revolt were recorded by Américo Paredes in 1954 and can be found at the
Center for American History at the University of Texas, Austin.
3 Walter Benjamin, ‘‘Theses on the Philosophy of History,’’ in Illuminations: Essays
and Reflections, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken Books, 1969), 255.
4 ‘‘Plan Revolucionario,’’ in Gabriel Saldívar, Documentos de la rebelión de Cata-
rino E. Garza en la frontera de Tamaulipas y sur de Texas, 1891–1892 (Mexico
City: n.p., 1943), 13–16.
5 John Gregory Bourke, ‘‘An American Congo,’’ Scribner’s (May 1894): 599.
6 ‘‘A Border Ruffian?’’ Gate City, 18 Sept. 1891, in Archivo Histórico de la Secre-
taría de Relaciones Exteriores de México (hereafter cited as sre), leg. 11–10–44,
exp. 1, f. 88.
7 For a more contemporary analysis of the power of narratives on the formation of
border identities, see Pablo Vila, Crossing Borders, Reinforcing Borders: Social
Categories, Metaphors, and Narrative Identities on the U.S.-Mexico Frontier
(Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000), 15.
8 Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History
(Boston: Beacon Press, 1995), 28.
9 For a recent example of someone who tries to link the two genres, see Louis
Gerard Mendoza, Historia: The Literary Making of Chicana and Chicano History
(College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2001).
10 Américo Paredes, With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and Its Hero
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