1. Celestina's Brood
1. The exception is Juan Antonio Maravall, El rnundo social de "La Celestina"
(Madrid: Gredos, 1964), who studies the context, not the work, and does it
circuitously, by sometimes appealing to Celestina to prove what he says
about its context and vice versa.
2. An accurate and fair-minded update on the critical status of Celestina
studies may be obtained from Peter N. Dunn, Fernando de Rojas (Boston:
Twayne Publishers, 1975). More recent studies are discussed or mentioned
later in this essay. The latest attempt to reduce Celestina to a genre has been
Charles F. Fraker's Celestina: Genre and Rhetoric (London: Tamesis, 1990).
3. Origenes de
novela, 2d. ed. (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investiga-
ciones Cientificas, 1957), vols. 3 and 4. Menendez Pelayo, however, does
not believe that Celestina is a novel, but merely the seed of both the novel
and the Spanish theater (3:222).
4. Specialized scholarship does list a very large number ofimitations
and adaptations, but I am referring to the absence of a more mainstream
tradition of followers. On the imitations, the principal sources are Mar-
celino Menendez y Pelayo'S Orfgenes de
novela, which continues to be
unsurpassed, and Maria Rosa Uda de Malkiel's La originalidad artistica de "La
Celestina" (Buenos Aires: Fonda de Cultura Econ6mica, 1962). There are also
several articles on the subject in CeIestinesca, the semiannual journal devoted
to Celestina studies published at the University of Georgia.
5. "Las nubes" is the name of the chapter, now included in the Obras
cornpletas, ed. Angel Cruz Rueda (Madrid: Aguilar, 1959), vol. 2, pp. 706-10.
Azorin also wrote "La Celestina," followed by two subchapters on Rojas
entitled "La Celestina, La Peregrina," and "Dejemos al Diablo," in his Los
val ores Iiterarios (1914), now collected in his Obras cornpIetas, vol. 2, pp. 994-
6. Cervantes and Maeztu were not the only ones to express such a
radical interpretation of Celestina. Before he formulated his vast theories on
the structure of Spanish history, which impelled him to make every aspect
of Hispanic life relate to them, Americo Castro offered a view of Celestina that
is as extreme as any and that I find impossible to assail. He says, in his Santa
Teresa y
ensayos: "La Celestina is a book redolent with a human and
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