abra (Brazilian Association for
Agrarian Reform), 411n33
Ação Católica (Catholic Action), 93–95,
111n2
Acre (state), 36n56, 80, 106, 112n28
Africa, 22, 138, 250, 418
Afro- Brazilian, 3
Agrarian Development, Ministry of, 142,
166, 339–40, 347, 379; controversial
statistics and, 66, 125; creation of
the, 165; peasant groups influence,
142, 238; quarrel between Ministry of
Agriculture and, 63
Agrarian elite associations, 70, 75–76,
84–85; state funding for, 260, 273n43,
416. See also can; crb; farsul;
ocb; sna; srb; udr
Agrarian elites, 76, 100, 195, 294, 354,
367; agricultural marketing boards
and, 48; agro- export policies and,
53, 55; in alliance with capital and
the state, 53, 62, 84, 87, 96, 101, 206;
“are now flying” under Lula, 181n53;
citizenship rights obstructed by, 25,
75–76, 395–96, 424; environmental
destruction and, 30, 80; expropria-
tion payments benefit, 60–61, 416,
426n8; incra land inspections
thwarted by, 369; judiciary and, 103,
233–34, 342, 356–57, 360, 371n13,
372n22, 405; land accumulation and,
56, 61–62; land devaluation weak-
ens, 52; land fraud weakens, 364;
landlord- friendly state hinders land
reform, 233, 396; lax enforcement
of laws favors, 416–17; Lula irritates,
344, 346, 419; military coup of 1964
supported by, 76, 395; military
regime strengthens, 8, 64, 78, 100,
116, 405; mst criminalized by, 213,
419; mst perceived as a grave threat
to, 212; peasants confront, 69, 203,
208, 212; pt governments in alliance
with, 423; pt governments generate
mistrust among, 420. See also
Agribusiness; Land fraud; Sugarcane
landlords
Agrarian elites: political clout of, xxiv,
71, 91, 102, 157, 359; agribusiness and,
64, 85, 87, 419; decline of traditional
patronage and, 79; government
leaders fear, 19, 142, 172, 231, 342;
hegemony and, 93; land reform
undermined by, 56, 85, 98, 159, 165,
396, 404; military regime reinforces,
116; Ministry of Agriculture and, 143;
mobilizations enhance, 172; state
presence in Amazon reduces, 210;
weak patrimonial state enhances, 24.
See also Bancada Ruralista
Agrarian elites: state subsidies for, xxiv,
25–26, 63, 169, 239, 271n21, 396, 415;
added privileges and, 49–50, 150,
165, 416; Amazon cattle ranches and,
100, 204
Agrarian elites: violence used by, 109,
163, 208, 214, 342, 361; land mobili-
zations and, 22, 85, 97, 217; peasants
call on state to contain, 384. See also
Hired gunmen; Paramilitary groups;
Violence
Agrarian reform; definition of, 36n49;
world experience in, 13–22. See also
Agrarian elites; Cardoso government;
INDEX
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