"Agnes" is the pseudonym given by Harold Garfinkel ("Passing and the Managed Achieve-
ment of Sex Status in an 'Intersexual' Person," in Studies in Ethnomcthodology. by Harold
Garfinkel [New York: Prentice-Hall,
1967], u6-8S, 285-88).
"Hermaphroditism" is the older term for what is now clinically defined as "intersexu-
ality." The word "hermaphrodite" usually implies a Iningling or coexistence of the two
sexes, while "intersexuality" suggests a stage between the two sexes. "Intersexuality"
was introduced into the medical lexicon in the first half of the twentieth century. The
significance of shifting from one term to the other will be discussed at greater length
in chapter 3.
3 Garfinkel. Studies
Robert Stoller, Harold Garfinkel. and Alexander
Rosen, "Passing and the Maintenance of Sexual Identification in an Intersexed Patient,"
Archives of GenelOl Psychiatry
2 (1960): 379-80;
Robert Stoller, "A Contribution to the Study
of Gender Identity," Journal of the American Medical Association 4S
Stoller, ''A Fur-
ther Contribution to the Study of Gender Identity," International Journal of Psycho-AnalysiS
and Stoller, Sex and Gender: On the Devdopment of Masculinity and Femininity (New
York: Science House,
Stoller, Garfinkel. and Rosen, "PaSSing,"
As the title of Garfinkel's chapter indicates, the researchers were interested in part in
Agnes's "passing" strategies, which they understood as those strategies that allowed her
to move from the category of "normal male" to that of "normal female," as well as
those strategies that enabled her to live as a woman. Garfinkel defines "passing" in the
follOWing manner: "The work of achieving and making secure their rights to live in the
elected sex status while prOViding for the pOSSibility of detection and ruin carried out
within the SOcially structured conditions in which this work occurred"
thus suggests both the movement from one category to another and the achievement of
legitimacy in the second category.
6 Stoller, "Further Contribution,"
7 Stoller, "Contribution,"
8 Garfinkel, Studies
9 Stoller, Sex and Gender,
Stoller, "Further Contribution,"