The words Grovers have used to refer to people now generally called heterosexu-
als have changed over the years. Until the 1960s they usually called them "normal,"
"square," or "family" people. To avoid confusion I have most often used the term
3 Sayville has a charming appearance, and Catherine Hoag Richter, one of the
family narrators who had lived there and been a leading citizen, described it as "an
above average little town."
has a number of cultural institutions and is proud of its
long history. From the perspective of most gay Grovers, Sayville was and is hostile
territory to be passed through quickly. According to Cooney (1978), the town's gay
bar had been burned down twice. He described the homophobic attitudes of Sayville
in the 1970S as being held in check by gay money from the Pines, which helped
promote a "'you scratch my back, and I won't break yours' attitude."
4 I will most often use the word gay to refer to both women and men, because that
is and was the common Grove practice (see
1990:X, note; he uses the same
terms for the World War II era).
5 See Appendix on Methods for a ruller discussion of how this history was done.
6 Names, nouns, and pronouns in italics reverse or modifY gender-see Appendix
7 For a discussion of first names and pseudonyms, see Appendix on Methods. Kay
was one of a few principal narrators who asked me not to publish their last names.
8 Goodwin (1989: xiii) argues that coastal gays have been overstudied and that the
"'culture' of New York and San Francisco does not playa major conscious part in
the lives of gay men in much of the country." I would say rather that gays elsewhere
have been understudied; as to his second proposition, elites play critical roles in the
dissemination of culture whether there is awareness of it or not. For San Francisco
as gay capital see D'Emilio (1989:195, and n. 47), Fitzgerald (1986) and Murray
(1992); narrator Dick Leitsch has called the Grove "the spiritual capital of the gay
world" (Hunter 1971).