notes
introduction
State, Class Society, and Children in Chile
1. I consulted the trial transcript of the Puelma case among uncatalogued
materials at the Archivo Nacional. It has since been provisionally catalogued:
[Puelma case, November 1894], ajs, Caja 16 corresponding to the year 1895,
sistema de catalogación provisional. The children’s entry into the Protectora is
recorded in spire,1894–1902.Theircasewasfollowedcarefullybythepress
and became part of the city’s collective memory. In an unrelated 1898 case, for
example, a defense lawyer rhetorically compared the plainti√ to the blood-
thirsty relatives in the Puelma case: José Acevedo con Mannhein Aguiles sobre
nulidad de lejitimación, esc, Agosto 1898, Segundo Juzgado del Crimen de
Valparaíso. A note on citations: a significant number of uncatalogued judicial
cases located in the basement of the Archivo Nacional in Santiago were con-
sulted for this study. They are denoted esc (expediente sin catalogación).
Because no catalogue numbers are available for such cases, in citing them I
have provided as much identifying information about them as appears on the
transcript’s cover page.
2. This is the definition given in nineteenth-century versions of the Real
Academia Española.
3. Constitución política, art. 12. By midcentury, entailed estates (mayoraz-
gos), an institution serving the economic interests of elite families, had also
been abolished.
4. As a church authority noted in 1853: ‘‘Since there is no longer any need
to ascertain who are the real Indians and blacks, we believe that the reason
for maintaining separate books of baptismal registries for people of di√erent
castas no longer exists. For this reason . . . we approve the practice that was
introduced some time ago of consolidating [the two] into a single baptismal
book. Valdivieso, ‘‘Ordenanza sobre libros,’’ 18. On mestizaje in the Chilean
imaginary, see Waldman Mitnick, ‘‘Chile: Indígenas y mestizos negados.’’
5. Romero, Qué hacer, 92 and chapter 4; Salazar, Labradores, peones y prole-
tarios.
6. On landownership, see Bauer, Chilean Rural Society, especially chapter 7.
Recent appraisals have suggested histories of the oligarchic Chilean state have
neglected the significance of popular politics to state formation. Mallon, ‘‘De-
coding the Parchments.’’
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