This feeling was pervasive in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and still persists nearly
five decades later. Yet, a large segment of the survivors in Hiroshima and Naga-
saki have participated in the
investigations with the cooperation of
the medical institutions of both cities. Prior to the formal surrender of Japan
and before the Allied occupation forces had arrived in Japan, one of the first
memoranda concerning the investigation of the atomic bomb effects expressed
this perspective: "A study of the effects of the two atomic bombs used in Japan
is of vital importance to our country. ntis unique opportunity may not again be
offered until another world war" (A. W. Oughterson et ai., "Medical Effects of
the Atomic Bomb," in Report of the Joint Commission on the Effects of the Atomic
Bomb in Japan, vol. 1, app. 1, p. 24 [US. Atomic Energy Commission, Technical
Information Service, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1951]).
Once it was generally recognized that an atomic bomb had caused the de-
struction, the leading physicians of Japan immediately began to investigate the
medical implications of the weapon. See the comment by Dr. John Bngher,
deputy director of the Division of Biology and Medicine, Atomic Energy Com-
mission, about the interest of the Nagasaki Medical School faculty in continuing
to observe the long-term effects among the survivors, in note
2 This is the document requested by the War Department in February 1942. With-
out it, my commission, dated November 25, 1941, could have been revoked.
Consulate of Japan, Los Angeles, Calif.: "In accordance with the National Citi-
zenship Law, Section 20, Article 3, Paragraph 2, the [Japanese] citizenship of the
persons named hereafter has been cancelled on the 12th day of the 10th month
of 8th year of Showa Era (October 12, 1933) and the notice thereof has been pub-
lished in the official Bulletin 329 of the Department of Home Affairs: Yamazaki
Tamio (Peter), Yamazaki Michio (John), Yamazaki Nobuo (James). Translation,
certified correct and made by R.
Mittewer, Notary Public for the County of Los
Angeles, February 6, 1942, and recorded in the County Recorder's Office."