1 Jim Yardley, ‘‘Farmers Being Moved aside by China’s
Real Estate Boom,’’ New York Times, 8 December 2004.
2 See, for example, the essays in Gulden, Farewell to Peas-
ant China and What’s a Peasant to Do? According to the
fifth national population census of 2000, China’s ur-
banization rose from 12 percent in 1952 to 17 percent
in 1978, 30 percent in 1996, and 36 percent in 2000
(quoted in Li Zhang, China’s Limited Urbanization, 4). In
2004 the World Bank calculated China’s urban popula-
tion to be 39 percent of its total population.
3 Chan, ‘‘Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration since
1982,’’ 273.
4 Yan, Private Life under Socialism. See especially chapter 5,
‘‘Domestic Space and the Quest for Privacy.’’
5 Zhu, The Transition of China’s Urban Development, 30.
6 Li Zhang argues that even during the postsocialist pe-
riod China’s systematic characteristics, particularly its
state-biased development, continues to constrain urban-
ization. While Kam Wing Chan’s analyses demonstrate
that China’s urbanization rate under socialism averaged
4.3 percent annual urban growth, on a par with other
developing nations, Zhang and others maintain this
level constitutes ‘‘limited urbanization’’ in the sense that
China’s industrial output during that period exceeded
urbanization rates typically associated with those levels.
By comparing China’s urbanization in 2000 to that in
other socialist countries, developing countries, and all
countries, Zhang concludes that even in 2000 China
remained under-urbanized by 14–16 percent relative to
these three categories. See Chan and Xu, ‘‘Urban Popu-
lation Growth and Urbanization in China since 1949’’;
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