1. In modern sociology, William Julius Wilson has often been
cited as a proponent of the first position and Douglas Massey
as an advocate of the second, although this in fact says more
about the thin terms of the debate than about the positions of
these particular authors (see Wilson 1980; Massey and Den-
ton 1993). The debate has long roots and is by no means
restricted to sociology. Indeed, the roots of the sociological
debate (e.g., Sombart 1976 [1906]; Myrdal 1944; Cox 1948)
are in fact also touchstones for a parallel debate in historical
scholarship. See Redding (2003) for an overview of the same
debate in the context of disfranchisement.
2. Terence Vincent Powderly Papers, letters from T. L. East-
burn, January 19, 1880; February 2, 1880.
3. Terence Vincent Powderly Papers, letters from William
Wright, August 21, 1880; September 11, 1880.
4. Terence Vincent Powderly Papers, letter from J. Edward
Brown, January 18, 1886.
5. As with racial divisions, class partitioning only occurs in so-
cial process, as E. P. Thompson (1966) has famously claimed.
6. One approach has focused primarily on the temporal pat-
terning that is inherent in narrative. This work has generally
been packaged in the form of critiques of standard method-
ological assumptions about temporality and causality in the
social sciences (Abbott 1990, 1992; Gri≈n 1992; Sewell 1996),
and a set of techniques for better dealing with these issues
(Abell 1987; Gri≈n 1993; Abbott 1995; Bearman, Faris, and
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