See chapter 1 for a detailed discussion of the debates surrounding this assertion.
For specific histories of the early twentieth-century Labour College movement,
see Kelly; Ree; and J. P. Millar,
The Labour College Movement
(National Council of
Labour Colleges, 1979).
2 The following novels serve as examples, though their fame or notoriety is clearly
relative to the utter obscurity of the texts I focus upon: George Bernard Shaw,
An Unsocial Socialist
(New York: Brentano, 1901); Clementina Black,
An Agita-
(New York: Harper, 189S); Isabella Ford,
On the Threshold
(London: Arnold,
189S); Gertrude Dix,
The Image Breakers
(London: N. Heinemann, 1900); Mar-
garet Harkness,
A City Girl
(London: n.p., 1887); Henry Green,
Hogarth Press, 1948).
3 For the standard works of reproduction theory, see the following: Althusser;
Basil Bernstein,
Class, Codes and Control,
Vol. 3,
Towards a Theory of Educational
2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 1977); Bourdieu and Passeron; Bour-
Outline ofA Theory ofPractice;
selections from
Bowles and Gintis.
4 See his
Learning to Labour.
S See "The Emergence of Cultural Studies," especially 11-12.
6 For an enormously useful overview of the cccs's work, see
Culture, Media, Lan-
Ed. Stuart Hall et aI., especially Hall's introductory piece, "Cultural Studies
and the Centre: Some Problematics and Problems," IS-47, as well as his later
"Cultural Studies and its Theoretical Legacies,"
Cultural Studies,
Ed. Lawrence
Grossberg et al. (New York: Routledge, 1992), 277-294. Also see the following
studies and/or collections: Hall and Jefferson;
Working Class Culture: Studies in His-
tory and Theory,
Ed. John Clarke et al. (London: Hutchinson, 1979);
Women Take
Ed. Women's Studies Group, Centre For Contemporary Cultural Studies
(London: Routledge, 1978); McRobbie, "Settling Accounts with Subcultures";
Hebdige; Batsleer et al.; Widdowson; Willis and Corrigan, "Cultural Forms and
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