1. Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity (New
York: Routledge, 2001). Out of twenty- ﬁve truth commissions Hayner noted since
1970, nineteen of them took place after 1990.
2. The Cold War “empire for liberty” can be regarded as another phase of what
Oscar V. Campomanes called the “anticolonial empire.” Campomanes built on the
idea of “imperial anticolonialism,” coined by William Appleman Williams, who
famously characterized the Open Door Policy consistently sought in twentieth-
century U.S. diplomacy as “Amer i ca’s version of the liberal policy of informal
empire or free-trade imperialism” (67), which was at the same time driven by
“the benevolent American desire to reform the world in its own image” (47). Wil-
liam Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (New York: World
Publishing Com pany, 1959). See Oscar V. Campomanes, “1898 and the Nature
of the New Empire,” Radical History Review 73 (winter 1999): 139. For a geneal-
ogy of the link between liberalism and the development of the United States as a
national empire, see Richard H. Immerman, Empire for Liberty: A History of Ameri-
can Imperialism from Benjamin Franklin to Paul Wol fo witz (Prince ton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 2010). From the opposite end of the po liti cal spectrum, in Amer-
i ca’s Inadvertent Empire (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), William E.
Odom and Robert Dujarric pres ent the idea of the United States as a “liberal
empire.” They ofer a post– Cold War reaﬃrmation of the American imperium as a
militarized defender of free market fundamentalism.
3. See especially Gavan McCormack, Client State: Japan in the American Embrace
(London: Verso, 2007); and Chal mers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism,
Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004).
4. Elaine Kim and Chungmoo Choi’s Dangerous Women: Gender and Korean Nation-
alism (New York: Routledge, 1998) was the pioneering collaborative work by
Korean and Korean American feminist scholars who, for the ﬁrst time in North
Amer i ca, brought light to the transwar, transpaciﬁc continuities among Japa nese
colonialism, U.S. Cold War military- security imperialism, and Korean national-
ism. For my own early attempt to theorize the transpaciﬁc, U.S.- Japan Cold War