All translations are mine unless otherwise indicated. References correspond
to documents'locations in 1989-95.
Even ecclesiastical historians have had little to say about Peru's convents
and nuns. Antonine Tibesar, for example, in Franciscan Beginnings in Colonial Peru
(Washington, D.C.: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1953), does not
mention the Franciscans' "sister" order, the Poor Clares.
2. See, for example, the encomiums Ismael Portal dedicates to the nuns of
Lima in Lima religiosa (r535-r924) (Lima: Libreria e Imprenta Gil, 1924).
3. See Irene Silverblatt, Moon, Sun, and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca
and Colonial Peru (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), 81-108, for an
insightful analysis of adlas and the gender politics of Inca statecraft.
4. Antonio Vazquez de Espinosa, Compendio y descripci6n de las Indias occidentales,
ed. B. Velasco Bayon, Biblioteca de Autores Espaiioles 231 (Madrid: Ediciones
Atlas, 1969), 302, writing of La Encarnacion.
5. Archivo Departamental del Cusco (hereafter ADC), Asuntos Eclesiasticos,
leg. 7, ''Autos que siguen contra las haciendas nombradas Cayllacalle," fo1. 21.
6. Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Proctice, trans. Richard Nice (New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1977), esp. 78-87. See also Steven Feier-
man's valuable discussion of the issues at stake in the study of habitus, prac-
tice, and discourse: Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in Tanzania (Madi-
son: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990), 27-39.
7. Benedict Anderson's insight into the selective negation involved in creole
nation-building-see his Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread
of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 1991)-can be extended to the spiritual econ-
omy, from whose workings many "creole pioneers" were vigorously trying to
extricate themselves during the nineteenth century.
8. In the Philippines, for example: Carmen Yuste suggests that Mexican
merchants transferred capital to create obms pias there to ensure not only their
salvation but their liquidity ("Los comerciantes de la Ciudad de Mexico en la
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