1. Rudyard Kipling to W. Cameron Forbes, August 21, 1913, Forbes papers, bMS Am
1364, Houghton Library, Harvard University. Kipling was an active promoter of
U.S. intervention in the Philippines: see his ‘‘The White Man’s Burden.’’
2. Heiser, ‘‘Unsolved Health Problems,’’ 177. My focus here is on colonial hygiene and
health education; I pay relatively little attention to clinical medicine and psychiatry
and less to other healing traditions in the Philippines.
3. Rosenberg, ‘‘Framing Disease.’’ On the social body, see Poovey, Making a Social
Body. For other accounts of the racializing of pathology, see Gilman, Difference and
Pathology; O’Connor, Raw Material; Craddock, City of Plagues; and Shah, Con-
tagious Divides.
4. Stoler and Cooper, ‘‘Tensions of Empire’’; Dirks, ed., Colonialism and Culture;
Thomas, Colonialism’s Culture. Also Arnold, Colonizing the Body; Packard, White
Plague, Black Labor; Vaughan, Curing Their Ills; and Comaroff and Comaroff,
Ethnography and the Historical Imagination.
5. Importantly, the model is not the concentration camp, described hyperbolically in
Agamben, Homo Sacer. That is, I am describing the biopolitics of colonial subject
formation, not a thanatopolitics.
6. Ileto, ‘‘Outlines of a Non-linear Emplotment,’’ 110.
7. On the ‘‘civilizing process,’’ see Elias, The Civilizing Process. Adas finds in the colo-
nial Philippines ‘‘the fullest elaboration of America’s civilizing mission ideology’’ but
disassociates it from ideas of race (Machines as the Measure of Men, 406; and
‘‘Improving on the Civilizing Mission?’’). On the colonial inculcation of civic virtue,
see Conklin, A Mission to Civilize. Fieldhouse briefly alludes to the United States
attempting ‘‘to fit her colonies into a republican framework’’ (The Colonial Empires,
343). Cannell suggests that ‘‘Americans demanded from their colony the evidence of
the growth of a ‘democratic’ civic sensibility of a certain kind’’ (Power and Intimacy,
203). On the persistence of the rhetoric of republican civic virtue in American cul-
ture, see Furner, ‘‘The Republican Tradition’’; Pickens, ‘‘The Turner Thesis and Re-
publicanism’’; and Cohen, The Reconstruction of American Liberalism. It is impor-
tant to recognize the overlap, or mutual reinforcement, of republicanism, corporate
liberalism, and Christian social gospel in the United States during this period: see
Hofstadter, ‘‘Cuba, the Philippines and Manifest Destiny.’’ Anti-imperialists (such as
William Jennings Bryan) and imperialists (such as Theodore Roosevelt) debated
whether an empire would endanger American republicanism or reinvigorate it (at
least forestall its corruption) as continental expansion once had—see chapter 2. Of
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