1. eb 4/9/1909 (tua).
2. This percentage refers to the demographics of that particular class; in the general
population at sci-Muncy black women’s numbers are just over 40 percent. Pennsyl-
vania Department of Corrections: Female Oﬀenders (Report published by the Pennsyl-
vania Department of Corrections, February 2003), 1.
3. Examples include David Walker’s Appeal: To the Coloured Citizens of the World, but
in particular, and very expressly, to those of the United States of America (1830; reprint,
with an introduction by James Turner, Baltimore: Black Classic, 1993); Maria W.
Stewart, America’s First Black Woman Political Writer: Essays and Speeches, ed. and
introduced by Marilyn Richardson (Bloomington, Ind.: University of Indiana Press,
1987); Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, With the Assistance of Alex
Haley, Introduction by M. S. Handler (New York: Grove Press, 1965). For examina-
tions of the emotional and psychological impact of racism, see Frantz Fanon, Black
Skin, White Masks, trans. Charles Lam Markmann (New York: Grove Press, 1967),
and The Wretched of the Earth, Preface by Jean-Paul Sartre, trans. Constance Farring-
ton (New York: Grove Press, 1968); Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism, trans.
Joan Pinkham (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972).
4. Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-lynching Cam-
paign of Ida B.Wells, 1892–1900, ed. with an introduction by Jacqueline Jones Royster
(Boston: Bedford Books, 1997), and The Reason Why the Colored American is not in the
World’s Columbian Exposition: The Afro-American’s Contribution to Columbian litera-
ture, ed. Robert W. Rydell (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999); W. E. B. Du
Bois, The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches, 2nd ed. (Chicago: A. C. McClurg,
1903); Anna Julia Cooper, A Voice from the South (1892; reprint, New York: Oxford
University Press, 1988); Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Wash-
ington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1933).