1 Mack, Land Divided, 101.
2 Cited in Burns, Patriarch and Folk, 162.
3 More generally, see Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream.
4 U.S. Senate, ‘‘Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad.’’
5 While the U.S. military controlled Panama’s Canal Zone for much of the
twentieth century, it occupied the rest of the nation only between 1903–14
and 1918–20.
6 Denny, Dollars for Bullets, 384.
7 See esp. Wheelock, Imperialismo y dictadura, a pioneering study from 1975
that was written by a Sandinista guerrillero who later became minister of
agrarian reform during the Sandinista Revolution. Other influential studies
include Bermann, Under the Big Stick; Burns, Patriarch and Folk; Macaulay,
Sandino A√air; Millett, Guardians of the Dynasty; Quijano, Nicaragua; Sel-
ser, Sandino; and Vargas, Intervención norteamericana.
8 Manolo Cuadra in Calatayud Bernabeu, Manolo Cuadra, 19.
9 This paragraph draws heavily on Fehrenbach and Poiger, ‘‘Introduction.’’
10 For recent examples by Latin Americanist historians, see Louis Pérez, On
Becoming Cuban; Joseph, LeGrand, and Salvatore, Close Encounters of Em-
pire; and Moreno, Yankee Don’t Go Home. For case studies beyond Latin
America, see Wagnleitner, Coca-Colonization; Kuisel, Seducing the French;
Nolan, Visions of Modernity; and Fehrenbach and Poiger, Transactions,
Transgressions, Transformations.
11 On how, e.g., Cuban nationalists appropriated U.S. ways in their struggle
against Spanish colonial rule, see Louis Pérez, On Becoming Cuban. See also
Hale, Resistance and Contradiction, on the ways that Miskitu people on Nica-
ragua’s Atlantic coast used their ‘‘a≈nity’’ with Anglo-U.S. institutions and
cultural practices to resist the Hispanization e√orts of the Nicaraguan state.
12 On the use of this term in the Latin American context, see Roseberry,
‘‘Americanization in the Americas’’; and Cabán, Constructing a Colonial
People. For Europe and Japan, see, e.g., Zeitlin and Herrigel, Americaniza-
tion and Its Limits.
13 For recent examples that define anti-Americanism as the rejection of U.S.
influence, see McPherson, Yankee No!; Hertsgaard, Eagle’s Shadow; and
most of the essays in Ross and Ross, Anti-Americanism (key exceptions
include the articles by Ana María Dopico and Mary Nolan, both of whom
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