Index
Italicized locators refer to illustrations.
Accessory Transit Company, 23–25, 27,
28, 30, 40
Acción Católica, 277
Acción Social Católica de Damas y
Señoritas, 178
Action Française, 224, 225
Adultery, 187–88
Agriculture, 150–74, 201, 237. See also
Agroexport economy; Haciendas;
Landlords; Peasants; Specific crops
Agroexport economy: Conservative oli-
garchy involved in, 17, 50, 57, 93; dollar
diplomacy’s e√ects on, 127, 132–35,
139, 148, 150, 151–64, 167–74, 177, 269;
late-19th-century boom in, 13, 24, 54–
58, 96, 110, 146, 170, 196; liberal pol-
icies to stimulate, 49; 1950s–60s boom
in, 268, 273; 1920s boom in, 50, 152,
152–58, 164, 174; public improvements
to promote, 132, 154, 155–57; as shift-
ing production from grains, 96; social
tensions heightened by growth in, 88,
89, 96, 146. See also Food shortages;
Haciendas; Large-scale producers;
Medium-scale producers; Rural econ-
omy; Small-scale producers; Specific
crops
Aguado, Enoc, 144
Aguardiente, 32
Agüero, Fernando, 323n.40
Alliance for Progress program, 322n.22
Allied Army (Mena’s and Zeledón’s),
101–2, 114, 117, 286n.94
Altamirano, Pedrón, 245
American Baptist Home Mission
Society, 180, 182
Americanization: challenges to, 148; defi-
nition of, 6; di√erent groups’ aims
regarding, 10, 26–29; through dollar
diplomacy, 126–49, 152; e√orts at, 2–6,
10, 11–12, 15, 25–37, 49–50, 58–67, 69,
71, 83–84, 86; through education in
U.S., 63–65, 83; scholarship on, 7; of
U.S. immigrants, 182. See also ‘‘Ameri-
can way of life’’; Democratization;
Hollywood
‘‘American Phalanx’’ (Walker’s army), 29
‘‘American way of life’’ (modernity):
Guardia Nacional’s promotion of,
217–18; imposition of, on other coun-
tries, 1, 9–10, 279–80; Nicaraguans’
embrace of, 2, 5–6, 8–9, 11, 16, 17, 21,
22, 27–29, 41, 43, 44–45, 49, 54–66,
69, 71, 136, 184–87, 277; Nicaraguans’
introduction to, 15, 22; Nicaraguans’
rejection of, 6, 16, 17, 175, 178–79, 221–
31, 238, 240, 251–54, 258–59, 265–66,
277; Sandinista revolution as ending
to, 266; seductiveness of, 8, 10. See also
Americanization; Mass culture;
United States: as model for other
nations
Anti-Americanism, 2, 5–6, 7–9, 11, 16, 17,
25, 82–86, 93–94, 115, 130, 135–36, 174–
201, 206, 221–33, 235, 238, 240, 245–59,
265–66, 272, 276–78; after Walker fil-
ibuster, 43–45; of Central American
elites, 27–28; cultural, 175–201, 250–
55; economic, 125–49; of 1912 civil war,
16, 95, 100–122; persistence of, 267,
276–77; utopian vs. reactionary
brands of, 6, 9–10, 22, 175, 266, 278.
See also Imperialism (U.S.); Mena,
Luis; Sandino, Augusto; Zelaya, José
Santos; Zeledón, Benjamín
Apostolado de la Oración, 53
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