intRoduction Constituent Moments
1. Lefort, The Political Forms of Modern Society, 303–4.
2. Adams, The Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, 208–12.
3. Cited in Sullivan, Life of James Sullivan with Selections from His Writings,
4. Dahl, After the Revolution, 60.
5. See Näsström, “The Legitimacy of the People.”
6. Adams, Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, 209.
7. Rodgers, “The People,” Contested Truths, 80–111, 84.
8. Wolin, “Norm and Form,” 37.
9. Throughout this book I draw on Jacques Rancière’s conception of subjecti-
ﬁcation. For Rancière, subjectiﬁcation (la subjectivation), as opposed to subjec-
tion, refers to the enactment of a political subject premised on breaking from
the reigning categories of identiﬁcation. The people are the political subject of
democracy. “Constituent moments” refer to a mode of subjectiﬁcation prem-
ised on speaking on behalf of a people that is not . . . yet. There are other forms
of political subjectiﬁcation, other modes through which one is enacted as a