1 Without belaboring the issue of resistance to studying middle classes per
se (but see Burris 1986), I would still note that Nader’s (1969) call for
anthropologists to ‘‘study up,’’ rather than limit themselves to studying
poor people, has seldom been interpreted to mean study middle classes.
2 G. Velho’s (1980) landmark study of middle-class upward mobility in Rio
registers a north to south zone move and subsequent severing of ties.
Other studies of the ‘‘modern’’ middle class in Rio’s south zone include
Salem (1985a, 1985b); Rezende 1990; Coelho 1990; Fiuza 1990; and
Heilborn 1992. See Romanelli (1986) for a comparison of ‘‘modern’’ and
‘‘traditional’’ families of São Paulo’s south zone; and see Mafra (1993) for
a nuanced analysis of businessmen in the state of São Paulo. Two ﬁnely
detailed studies in what might be called ‘‘traditional’’ areas, yet which
avoid the trap of reifying that concept, are Abreu Filho (1980 and 1982)
on a small town in Minas Gerais and Carneiro (1986) on Rio’s north
zone. Carneiro examines rituals crosscutting social divisions through fes-
tival competitions (the Balão de São João). On the middle class and
gender, see Barros’s (1987) study of intergenerational familial relation-
ships and Ardaillon’s (1997) study of middle-class women professionals.
3 Campbell’s targets are Veblen and Weber, but Bourdieu’s work, which is
more relevant for comparison with this study, has also been criticized for
understanding consumption motivations as limited to status-seeking
goals (see Frow 1987; Rutz and Orlove 1989; and Calhoun, LiPuma, and
4 Miller 1995b provides an extensive review. Key works for Europe include
Elias 1978; R. Williams 1982; McKendrick, Brewer, and Plumb 1982;
Mukerji 1983; Frykman and Lofgren 1987; and McCracken 1990. For
my interests in class and nation, I found Blumin 1989; Wilk 1989;
Thomas 1991; Silverstone and Hirsch 1992; Friedman 1994; Brecken-
ridge 1995; Howes 1996; Miller 1997; Burke 1997; Comaro√ 1997;
Dávila 1997 and 2000; and Chin 2001 provide pathbreaking works on
historical developments in consumption cross-culturally.