{ GLOSSARY}
English cognates and foreign words used only once and defined in the text do not appear
here.
aduana: customs house or agency; also customs tax
alcalde: ward magistrate
alcancia: money box, used to collect alms for an institution
ama de conjianza: trusted housekeeper; here, female supervisor
anciano/anciana: elderly person
arroba: unit of weight equal to twenty-five pounds
atolera: woman who makes atole, a corn beverage
audiencia: high court under direct royal jurisdiction
ayuntamiento: city council, municipal government; also known as the cabildo
caballeria: a land measure of approximately
105
acres
casa: house
casta: caste; a person of mixed racial heritage
castizo/castiza: person of mestizo and white parents, in theory of three-quarters Euro-
pean and one-quarter Indian heritage
celador/celadora: supervisor or watchman; also a kind of policeman
Comolidacion de vales Reales: a measure decreed in 1804 to consolidate government trea-
sury debts by calling in Church-held mortgages
comulado: merchant guild, commercial tribunal
corregidor: royal district governor
corrigendo/corrigenda: young person placed in custody for reform and punishment; juve-
nile delinquent
cuartel: ward, one of the administrative units into which Mexico City was divided in 1782
desnudos: literally, naked ones; here, ragged paupers whose torn clothes barely cover their
flesh
doctrinero: a type of priest; here, a layperson who teaches Catholic doctrine
don/doria: honorific title denoting high status
egido (today ejido): common land, usually belonging to indigenous communities
espaiiol/espaiiola: Spanish; here a person who passes as white; refers to those born in
America as well as Spain
jiador: person who guarantees by bond
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