On 7 December 1998 the Globo newspaper sponsored a forum in Rio de
Janeiro titled “mpb: Engajamento ou alienação?” (mpb: Engagement or
alienation?). It brought together well- known musicians to debate whether
Brazilian popular music (mpb) had lost the critical edge and national rele-
vance it once had under the dictatorship, particularly from the mid- 1960s
to the mid- 1970s, when politically engaged song was at its height (figure 1).
The participants included Marcos Valle, a singer- songwriter who was at the
center of what is often called the second wave of bossa nova, beginning
in the mid- 1960s, and whose grooves had recently been rediscovered by a
younger cohort based in the United Kingdom; Fernanda Abreu, who first
gained fame as a singer and dancer in the pop- rock band Blitz in the early
1980s and later pursued a solo career mixing disco, funk, and samba in-
fluences; Adriana Calcanhotto, a singer- songwriter from Porto Alegre, in
the South of Brazil, who moved to Rio and made a name for herself there
PrefaCe
Globalization is not the weapon of a single country for dominating another. . . . It is
sufficient that cultural institutions be attentive to the invasion of mannerisms and to the
most alive expressions of the country’s art, its music. Fortunately, samba is quite strong.
—José Celso de Macedo Soares of the National Commerce Confederation
 ( Jornal do Brasil, 12 July 1999)
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