The Diary of Mary Cooper: Life on a Long Island Farm
ed. Field Horne (Oyster Bay, N.Y., 1981), 13, 19,23-24.
2 This view is taken in, for example, John C. Miller, "Religion, Finance and
Democracy in Massachusetts,"
New England Quarterly
6 (1933): 29-58; Gary B.
The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and
of the American Revolution
(Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 161-263; and Elizabeth 1.
Nybakken, "New Light on the Old Side: Irish Influences on Colonial Presbyte-
Journal of American History
68 (1981-82): 813-32.
3 Itinerancy, of course, was an old problem whose history is discussed in chap-
ter 1 below. Yet historians of the Awakening from Joseph Tracy forward have
recognized that it took on new prominence in controversial literature of the
Awakening after 1740. See, for example, Joseph Tracy,
The Great Awakening:
A History of
Revival of Religion in the Time of Edwards and Whitefield
ton, 1845), 75-119, 230-54; Alan Heimert,
Religion and the American Mind:
Great Awakening to
(Cambridge, Mass., 1966), 36, 118-22,
161-64, and passim; Alan Heimert and Perry Miller, eds.,
The Great Awaken-
ing: Documents Illustrating the Crisis and Its Consequences
(Indianapolis and New
York, 1967), 147-51,228-364 passim; Richard
The Great Awaken-
ing: Documents on the Revival of Religion,
1740-1745 (New York, 1970), 19-65;
Harry S. Stout, "Religion, Communication, and the Ideological Origins of the
William and Mary Quarterly,
3d ser., 34 (1977): 519-41.
The Great Awakening,
5 See, for example, Charles Chauncy,
Enthusiasm describ'd and caution'd against
(Boston, 1742), ii-iv.
6 Jon Butler has argued that these sporadic outbreaks were largely unrelated; see
his "Enthusiasm Described and Decried: The Great Awakening as Interpretive
The Journal of American History
69 (1982-83): 305-25; and his
in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing
(Cambridge, Mass., 1990),
164-93. I will argue in contrast that after 1739, colonists themselves perceived
revivals throughout the colonies to
integrally related as they read about dis-