Throughout the text all translations are my own.
Manuel Barrera, "EI conflicto obrero en el enclave cuprifero," paper pre-
sented at the Seminario Movimientos Laborales en America Latina, Mexico
City, 1972; Francisco Zapata, "Enclaves y sistemas de relaciones industriales
en America Latina;'
Revista Mexicana de Sociologfa
39 (April-June 1977); Fran-
cisco Zapata, "Los mineros de Chuquicamata:
0 proletarios?"
(Mexico: Centro de Estudios Sociol6gicos, Colegio de Mexico, 1975); Fran-
cisco Zapata, "The Chilean Labor Movement and the Problems of the Tran-
sition to Socialism,"
Latin American Perspectives
3 (Winter 1976).
2 Zapata, "Enclaves y sistemas de relaciones industriales"; Barrera, "EI con-
flicto obrero en el enclave cuprifero"; Clark Kerr and Alan Siegel, "Inter-
industry Propensity to Strike;' in
Collective Bargaining,
ed. Allan Flanders
(New York: Penguin, 1969), pp. 141-143. Two classic expressions of the en-
clave literature applied to Chile are James Petras and Maurice Zeitlin,
El radi-
calismo po/{tico de la clase trabajadora chilena
(Buenos Aires, 1969), and Charles
Labor in Latin America: Comparative Essays on Chile, Argentina, Vene-
zuela, and Colombia
(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986). Examining
the results of national presidential and congressional elections in the late
1950S and early 1960s, Petras and Zeitlin found that copper miners provided
the strongest and most cohesive base of support for the growing Socialist
and the Communist Party
Copper miners' history of strikes
and political activity rendered them "the most active revolutionary force in
Chilean society" (p. 75). Bergquist asserts that the copper miners uphold the
radical traditions of the nitrate miners and, because of their strategic loca-
tion in the export sector of the economy, have acted as the major force in
the Chilean labor movement and the Left. Bergquist's emphasis on the ex-
port sector in the nitrate and copper mines draws on the traditional Marxist
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