Note on Language
The use of Turkish follows the orthography of modern Turkish. The pro-
nunciation is as follows:
Turkish English
C j as in jaw
Ç ch as in chuck
S sh as in shoe
S s as in English
˘ g silent-to-gutteral, depending on dialect
Ö similar to German ö
O like oh
Ü similar to German ü or French u
U like oo in fool
I similar to the i in if
I like ee in eek
Plurals generally are given in the English. Thus, hoca (pron. ‘‘ho-ja’’), cami
(pron. ‘‘ja-mi’’), and cem (pron. ‘‘gem’’) are not rendered hocalar, camiler,
or cemler according to the Turkish system of pluralization, but as hocas,
camis, and cems.
Turkish, an agglutinative language, uses a system of vowel harmony; this
accounts for what may appear to be inconsistencies in orthography (e.g., as
above, the plural su≈x can be -lar or -ler). An infix whose vowel does not
change governs the spelling of following syllables of a word, which other-
wise would be spelled di√erently (i.e., without the infix). Furthermore, loan
words from Persian or Arabic typically violate the rules of vowel harmony.
‘‘Turk’’ and ‘‘Turkish’’
Throughout the book I use the two words liberally, primarily as short-
hand for ‘‘people who have moved from Turkey to Germany,’’ or for ‘‘Türk-
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