1. Brading, Los orígenes del nacionalismo mexicano; Brading, “Nationalism
and Monuments in Modern Mexico”; and Brading, The First America.
2. The term “alternative nationalism” in this context draws on the arguments
of Florencia Mallon, Peasant and Nation.
3. Pimentel, Memoria sobre las causas que han originado la situación actual
de la raza indígena de México, 200–218. Note: in the postrevolutionary
era an effort by Francisco Bulnes to recycle such reasoning met harsh
criticism. See Francisco Bulnes, “Las razas inferiores son funesta en el tra-
bajo libre,” eu, 1 March 1921, and Manuel Gamio, “Las pretendidas razas
inferiores de México,” eu 4 March 1921.
4. Brading, The First America; Caplan, “The Legal Revolution in Town Poli-
tics; Hernández Chávez, Anenecuilco; Ducey, “Village, Nation, and Con-
stitution in Papantla, Veracruz”; Mallon, Peasant and Nation; Guardino,
Peasants, Politics, and the Formation of Mexico’s National State; Vázquez,
ed., El establecimiento del federalismo en México (1821–1827); Thomson,
“Popular Aspects of Liberalism in Mexico, 1848–1888”; Hale, The Trans-
formation of Liberalism in Late Nineteenth- Century Mexico; Tenorio,
Mexico at the World’s Fairs; Lomnitz, “Bordering on Anthropology: Dia-
lectics of a National Tradition in Mexico”; Weiner, Race, Nation, and
Market; and Chávez, Los indios en la formación de la identidad nacional
mexicana. Conflicts between grassroots and elite liberalism were not
confined to Mexico. See, for instance, Lasso, “Revisiting Independence
Day.” An explanation as to how movements for inclusion in the Andes lost
ground can be found in Walker, Smoldering Ashes, 186–221, and Larson,
Trials of Nation Making.
5. Tanenbaum, “Streetwise History,” 128 and 135–47; Tenorio, “1910 Mexico
City”; Needell, “Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires”; Field, Gournay, and
Somma, eds., Paris on the Potomac; Benjamin, La Revolución, 121; Bonfil
Batalla, México profundo; and Villoro, Los grandes momentos de indige-
nismo en México.
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