1. I borrow this term from Alexei Yurchak (1997), who uses it in analogy with ‘‘late
capitalism’’ to differentiate the period from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s in the
Soviet social order from earlier periods of socialism.
2. Manyscholarscontinuetosupportthepost–ColdWardeclarationof FrancisFuku-
yama that we have reached the ‘‘end of history,’’ despite evidence to the contrary.
For instance, Krishnan Kumar (2001:187) argues that ‘‘despite some rude noises
and scornful denunciations of Fukuyama, it is striking how few of his critics have
answered his repeated challenge to them to show what might upset the hegemony
of liberal democracy as a worldwide aspiration.’’
3. The decline in Soviet aid and export income prompted the Cuban state to declare a
‘‘special period in time of peace’’ in September 1990, in an attempt to rebuild the
Cuban economy through policies promoting self-sufficiency in food, the reintro-
duction of wide-scale rationing, the earning of hard currency through tourism,
and the reentry of Cuba into a global economy.
4. See,forinstance,Krasner1978;Stepan1978;Skocpol1979;Nordlinger1981,1987.
After the publication of BringingtheStateBackIn, the AmericanPoliticalScienceReview
(apsr) published a debate in which Nordlinger (1988) responded to a critique by
Almond (1988) by restating this view of the state as an autonomous and unitary
5. This definition is taken from the exhaustive and influential text by Cohen and
Arato (1992), but I refer here to a more general, geographically and theoretically
diverse range of work within comparative politics and political theory, including
O’Donnell and Schmitter 1986; Przeworski 1991; Linz and Stepan 1996; Keane
1998; Bernhard 1993; Weigle and Butterfield 1992.
6. The political theorist Charles Taylor (1990:41) claims that ‘‘civil society is not
so much a sphere outside political power; rather it penetrates deeply into this
power, fragments and decentralizes it.’’ Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives of
governmentality, some edited volumes have also sought to analyze the increas-
ing porousness of the neoliberal state as it expands to incorporate civil society.
Among these works are Cultures of Politics/Politics of Culture: Re-visioning Latin Ameri-
can Social Movements, edited by Sonia Alvarez, Evelina Dagnino, and Arturo Esco-
bar (1998), and States of Imagination: Ethnographic Explorations of the Postcolonial State,
edited by Thomas Blom Hansen and Finn Stepputat (2001).
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