375
Index
Abimbola, Wande, 138, 144n.50
Acuerdo el Imperial (1989), 289, 303n.7
Adorno, Theodor, 45
Afro-Brazilians: carnival and, 203, 204, 218,
220n.4, 221n.7; Congress of (1st, 1934),
138; media representations of, 210–11;
racial categorization of, 220n.2; stereo-
types of, 211–12, 214; West African meta-
phors of spirit possession and, 136. See
also Bando de Teatro Olodum (bto,
Olodum theater group); Candomblé
Afro Group: bloco de carnaval, 204, 218,
220n.4; Ilê Aiyê, 203, 204. See also Bando
de Teatro Olodum (bto, Olodum theater
group)
Alape, Arturo, 306, 322n.1
Allende, Salvador, 286, 287
Alwyn, Patricio, 289–90, 303n.7
Anderson, Benedict, 140n.1
Andrews, George Reid, 143n.44
Appadurai, Arjun, 82
Ardila, Martha, 322n.7
Argentina: children of the disappeared in,
56–57, 59 (fig. 4), 73–78, 74 (figs.15, 16,
17); Conquista del Desierto, 231; constitu-
tional reform in (1994), 250, 259–60,
272n.3; cultural identity in, 253; Dirty
War in, 56–57, 59 (fig. 4), 73–76, 74 (figs.
15, 16, 17); diversity acknowledged in,
269; on indigenous self-determination,
248, 252; paternalism in, 251–52. See also
Madres de la Plaza de Mayo; Mapuche
people; Photography
Asturias, Miguel Angel, 108, 119n.8
Audiovisual industries. See Cuba; Radio
broadcasts; Television; individual radio
stations (e.g., Radio Taino)
Bahia, Brazil: Afro-bahian culture and, 214–
15, 220n.4; Afro Groups in, 203, 204;
Pedro Álvares Cabral and, 230, 246n.1;
indigenous activism in, 234; slave trade
and, 133, 135. See also Candomblé;
Pelourinho
Bai, bai Peló, 208, 209, 213, 224n.24
Bando de Teatro Olodum (bto, Olodum
theater group), 204, 221n.9; audiences’
reactions to, 218, 226n.38; black identity
of, 210, 213; community reflected by, 213;
critics of, 210, 214–15, 226n.38, 227n.39;
marginalization embodied by, 211; mime-
sis, 206; as popular theater, 222n.12; racial
stereotypes used by, 210; theater space for,
222n.13; transculturation and, 215. See
also Trilogia do Peló
Barco, Virgilio, 308, 318
Barnet, Miguel, 186
Barthes, Roland, 63, 71, 338
Bastide, Roger, 132
Behar, Olga, 322n.1
Bejarano, Jésus Antonio, 324n.25
Belém do Pará, 131–32
Betancur, Belisario, 308, 312
Bhabha, Homi, 218, 228n.50
Bilingualism, 16, 27n.48, 151, 153–55, 159–
64, 171, 173
Birman, Patricia, 131, 143n.42
Black identity: Black Mother, 127, 128, 129,
132; carnival and, 203–4, 218, 220n.4; as
cultural identity, 122, 209–13, 225n.32; dif-
ference and, 209–10, 214, 225n.30; Trilogia
do Peló and, 209, 225n.30; Unified Black
Movement Against Racial Discrimination
(mnu) and, 220n.3. See also Bando de Tea-
tro Olodum (bto, Olodum theater group)
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