1 Arlt, Crónicas periodísticas (, 53. All
translations are mine unless otherwise noted. Arlt’s
comment was part of a debate with the Communist
Party leader Rodolfo Ghioldi. See Saítta, ‘‘Entre la cul-
tura y la política,’’ 405.
2 Gutiérrez and Romero, Sectores populares, cultura y
política. The ‘‘popular sectors’’ argument has become
something of a historiographical consensus. For a sum-
mary, see González Leandri, ‘‘La nueva identidad de los
sectores populares,’’ 201–37.
3 For example, Karl Hagstrom Miller has recently dem-
onstrated how the music industry in the United States
shaped racial perceptions and associations in the early
twentieth century. See Miller, Segregating Sound.
4 Hall, ‘‘Culture, Media and the ‘Ideological Effect,’ ’’
5 Adorno and Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment.
6 For a useful account of this trend in cultural studies,
see Storey, Inventing Popular Culture, 48–62.
7 Levine, ‘‘The Folklore of Industrial Society,’’ 1373.
8 Habermas, Legitimation Crisis.
9 Lipsitz, Time Passages, 39–75. Lipsitz’s recovery of the
possibility of alternative working-class readings of
television programs echoes the conclusions of other
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