The following biographical sketches provide background information on people,
groups, and organizations discussed in the book. The information contained in
each entry has been culled from a number of sources, including encyclopedias,
biographical dictionaries, bibliographic databases, and institutional histories.
Albuquerque, Georgina Moura Andrade de (Taubaté, SP 1885–Rio de Janeiro,
GB 1962) and Lucílio (Barras, PI 1877–Rio de Janeiro, DF 1939), painters. The Al-
buquerques met at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in 1904. Married two years
later, the couple spent several years in Europe, where both practiced a number of
styles including impressionism, symbolism, and art nouveau. In Brazil, Georgina
was best known for her impressionistic style and her interests in female subjects.
Professors at the National School of Fine Arts, both Lucílio and Georgina held
the position of director of the Museu Nacional de Belas Artes between 1937–1938
and 1952–1954, respectively.
Aleijadinho. See Lisboa, Antônio Francisco
Amaral, Tarsila do (Capivari, SP 1886–São Paulo, SP 1973), painter. Daughter
to wealthy landowners, Amaral left an unhappy marriage and the conservative
morays of the interior of São Paulo to study art. In 1920, she traveled to Paris,
where she familiarized herself with new fashions in European painting while
circulating among the Parisian smart set. After the Modern Art Week, Tarsila
returned to Brazil to join forces with Anita Malfatti, Mário de Andrade, Menotti
del Picchia, and husband Oswald de Andrade in deﬁning a multiplicity of Bra-
zilian modernisms. Her most productive period was 1922–1935, marked by the
Pau-Brasil phase of the mid-1920s, the Antropofagia phase of the late 1920s, and
social realism in the early 1930s.
Andrade, Carlos Drummond de (Itabira, MG 1902–Rio de Janeiro, RJ 1987), poet
and culture manager. Son of mineiro landowners, Drummond graduated with
a degree in pharmacology in 1925. In the late 1920s, Drummond was the editor
of the Diário de Minas, an important vehicle for modernist literature in Minas.
Befriending fellow mineiro Gustavo Capanema in the mid-1910s, Drummond