Notes
Preface
1
Fernando de Azevedo, Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture
in Brazil (New York: Macmillan Company, [1943] 1950).
2
Ernesto de Souza Campos, Instituições culturais e de educação superior no Bra-
sil: resumo histórico (Rio de Janeiro: Ministério da Educação e Saúde, 1941);
and Adalberto Mário Ribeiro, Instituições brasileiras de cultura, 2 vols. (Rio de
Janeiro: Ministério da Educação e Saúde; Serviço de Documentação, 1945–
1948).
Introduction: The Brazilian Republic, Getúlio Vargas,
and Metaphors of War
1
The spelling and accentuation of Brazilian Portuguese have undergone nu-
merous changes over the past century. Unfortunately, adherence to official
orthographic changes has not been uniform. I have followed the standard
practice of using modern spelling and accentuation in all instances, with the
exception of proper names and original book titles.
2
José Murilo de Carvalho, Os bestializados: o Rio de Janeiro e a República que
não foi (São Paulo: Companhia da Letras, 1987).
3
Museu Histórico Nacional–Setor do Controle do Patrimônio (hereafter
mhn–scp) 19/30 Doc. 4, 15 October 1930.
4
mhn–scp 26/30 Doc. 1, 13 December 1930.
5
Monumentos da Cidade: reportagens publicadas pelo Diário de Notícias (Rio de
Janeiro: Diário de Notícias, 1946).
6
For more information on Vargas’s final days, see Stanley Hilton, ‘‘The
Overthrow of Getúlio Vargas in 1945: Diplomatic Intervention, Defense of
Democracy, or Political Retribution?’’ Hispanic American Historical Review
67, no. 1 (February 1987): 1–38; and John D. French, ‘‘The Populist Gamble
of Getúlio Vargas in 1945: Political and Ideological Transitions in Brazil,’’
in Latin America in the 1940s: War and Postwar Transitions, ed. David Rock
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 141–65.
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