All translations of French texts are mine unless otherwise stated.
1 In this book, I write phantasy with a ph, following common Kleinian usage since the
1920s, when Klein’s work began.
2 The International Psychoanalytical Association had been founded in 1910 and Freud had
designated Carl Jung as its first president. He was succeeded after World War I by Karl
Abraham and later by Ernest Jones.
3 One of Jones’s motives for his support of Klein seems to have been his personal interest
in keeping her in London to analyze his own children.
4 The discussions, minutes, resolutions, and relevant personal correspondence have been
edited by Pearl King and Ricardo Steiner and published as no. 11 in the New Library of
Psychoanalysis under the title The Freud-Klein controversies, 1941–45 (1991). As a result of
them, the Society split into three groups, the (Anna) Freudians, the Kleinians, and the
Middle Group (Winnicott and others).
5 I am clearly drawing from Louis Althusser’s well-known formulation about the notion
and function of ‘‘apparatuses’’ in his ‘‘Ideology and ideological state apparatuses’’
(1971). This is amply discussed in several chapters of this book (especially chapter 5),
which emphasize the nature of Oedipus as a melancholic apparatus.
6 This well-known quote comes from Lord Alfred Douglas’s (Oscar Wilde’s lover) poem
‘‘Two Loves.’’
7 This ‘‘return to Klein’’ is present in the recent work of Juliet Mitchell. See, for example,
her edition of and introduction to The selected Melanie Klein (1986). See also Rose 1993,
Doane and Hodges 1992, and Phillips and Stonebridge 1998.
8 See especially Klein’s ‘‘Love, guilt, and reparation ([1937] 1975) and The psycho-analysis of
children ([1932] 1975) for accounts of male-female developmental di√erences.
9 Jacqueline Rose, in her chapter ‘‘Negativity in the work of Melanie Klein,’’ has empha-
sized that much of the critique directed against Klein was centered around the issue of
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