1 Woo Suk Hwang, Sung Il Roh, et al., “Patient- Speciﬁc Embryonic Stem
Cells Derived from Human scnt Blastocysts,” Science 308 (June 17, 2005):
1777 – 1783; Woo Suk Hwang, Young June Ryu, et al., “Evidence of a Pluripotent
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Derived from a Cloned Blastocyst,” Science
303 (March 12, 2004): 1669 – 1674. Science retracted both articles in 2006 after a
report from the investigation committee of Seoul National University revealed
that the authors “engaged in research misconduct and the papers contain fab-
ricated data”; Donald Kennedy, “Editorial Retraction,” Science 311 (January 20,
2 Although Kang told the young future scientists in the audience that his big
dream had been realized when he became a successful singer and when he
could perform again on the big stage even after his accident, his disabled per-
formance was not perceived as a sign of success. In fact, after his remark, Kang
had to ask the hesitating audience for applause.
3 “Hwang U- sŏk, Kang Wŏl- lae ŭi hwilch’eŏ nŭn tŏ isang ŏpta” [Hwang Woo
Suk, no more wheelchair for Kang Won Rae], Chungang ilbo, July 27, 2005.
4 McClintock, Imperial Leather, 37.
5 DiMoia explains that the aid organizations in South Korea claim that the na-
tion “successfully completed the transformation, going from an aid recipient
in the 1950s to an aid giver in the 1990s.” DiMoia, Reconstructing Bodies, 216.
6 McRuer, “Critical Investments,” 228.
7 David Cyranoski, “Cloning Comeback,” Nature 505 (January 23, 2014): 468.
8 Donald Kennedy, in Andrew Pollack, “Cloning and Stem Cells: The Research;
Medical and Ethical Issues Cloud Cloning for Therapy,” New York Times, Feb-
ruary 13, 2004.
9 Kang Yang- gu, “Hwang U- sŏk, nanch’ipyŏng hwanja changaein e taehan iyagi”
[Hwang Woo Suk and the stories of patients with incurable illnesses and peo-
ple with disabilities], Science Times, June 2, 2005.
10 Tari Youngjung Na (T’ari Yŏng- jŏng Na), “Independence of Women with
Disabilities,” in the booklet Women with Disabilities Empathy Nanjang 2005
11 “Kang Wŏl- lae, ‘Hwang U- sŏk yŏn’gu silyonghwa tŏegil’ ” [Kang Won Rae
wishes Hwang Woo Suk’s research becomes reality], Han’gyŏre sinmun, May