Acknowledgments
I am happy to thank colleagues and friends who of-
fered feedback and support while I was working on
this project, including (in alphabetical order) Peter
Beicken, Chris Cagle, Kent Cartwright, Russ Castro-
novo, Kandice Chuh, Stan Corkin, Caroline Eades,
Astrid Franke, Oliver Gaycken, Markus Gehann, Jim
Gilbert, Saverio Giovacchini, Lisa Gitelman, Lee
Grieveson, Marshall Grossman, Tom Gunning, Liam
Kennedy, Isabell Klaiber, Bob Kolker, Frank Krutnik,
Ted Leinwand, Bob Levine, Greg Metcalf, Yoichiro
Miyamoto, Alan Nadal, Howard Norman, Devin
Orgeron, Marsha Orgeron, Liz Papazian, Don Pease,
Dana Polan, Joshua Shannon, Jan Stievermann, Horst
Tonn, Michael Tratner, Trysh Travis, Orrin Wang,
Mary Helen Washington, David Wyatt, and various
eagle-eyed students over the years who pointed out
puzzling and peculiar features of these films that oth-
erwise I would probably never have noticed.
My gratitude also goes to Michelle Cerullo for
help compiling the bibliography. I also express my
appreciation for the valuable comments made by the
two anonymous readers for Duke University Press,
as well as for the encouragement and guidance of my
editor there, Courtney Berger. Thanks also to the
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