1 In this book, I ­ will only use mestiçagem when referring specifically to Brazil.
2 La raza in Latin Amer­ i ­ ca can refer to “a ­ people” conceived as a biocultural unity;
for example, la raza colombiana means “the Colombian ­ people,” understood to
share biology, history, and culture. This book title therefore can mean “the prob­
lems of race in Colombia” but also “the prob­lems facing la raza colombiana.”
3 See Wade (2010, 2015:ch. 6), Sanchez and Bryan (2003), Psacharopoulos and Pa-
trinos (1994), Telles and Proj­ect on Ethnicity and Race in Latin Amer­i­ca (2014).
On Mexico specifically, see also Moreno Figueroa (2010, 2012), and Sue (2013).
4 For details about rgmla, see the preface.
chapter 1  ·  Purity and Mixture in ­ Human Population Ge­ne­tics
1 Lateral gene transfer occurs when ge­ ne ­ t ic variants are transferred horizontally
between genealogically distinct lineages (common among microbes); hybrid spe-
cies are created when two dif­fer­ent species breed to produce a new fertile species
(which contradicts the standard definition of a species); a polygenomic organism
is one that hosts dif­fer­ent genomes, ­ whether from the same species (e.g., a chi-
mera) or dif­fer­ent species (e.g., the ratio of microbial to ­ h uman cells in a ­ h uman
body was widely reported to be 10:1, although this figure has recently been re-
vised down to 1:1 [Campbell 2016]).
2 In gwas, it is impor­tant to make sure that cases and controls are matched for bga
(i.e., population stratification is controlled for). If ­ people with a high proportion
of a given bga are overrepresented among cases, ge­ne­tic variants that are associ-
ated with that bga ­ will show up as candidate genes, even if they have no influence
on the disease.
3 See Paz’s analy­sis of this well-­ k nown Mexican phrase, which is usually translated
as “son of a bitch/whore,” but ­ r eally means “son of the act of fucking up/over”
(Paz 1950).
4 In 2009, I participated with colleagues in a research group in the esrc Centre
for the Research on Socio-­Cultural Change (cresc), hosted by the University of
Manchester and the Open University. We discussed the concept of topology at
some length, and I am indebted to ­ these discussions.
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