notes
introduction: Taking Culture Seriously
1
The Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development
(oecd)—a consortium of ministries from 30 countries—devel-
ops ‘‘rules of the game’’ for the creation of a global economy that
focuses on the creation of policies that support technological in-
novation. See oecd (2004). There are several recent books that
examine the relationship between national policies and innova-
tion productivity: see especially Clark and Tracey (2004); Hagel
and Brown (2005); Tavares and Teixeira (2006); and Schmoch,
Rammer, Legler (2006).
2
The World Economic Forum publishes an annual report on global
competitiveness that ranks countries according to the ‘‘Networked
Readiness Index,’’ which measures the degree to which countries
make use of their information-computer technologies (ict) re-
sources. The metric evaluates a country’s capacity to develop
policies and an interrelated system of education, research and
development, and technological diffusion. To the extent that the
elements of the system (number of graduates in science and tech-
nology educational programs, national infrastructure and pen-
etration of use of ict’s, as well as investment in research and
development) work in concert, the greater the level of global com-
petitiveness is. In 2005–2006, the United States ranked number
one. In 2006–2007, its ranking dropped to seven. The top three
countries in 2007 included: Denmark, Sweden, and Singapore.
These figures come from The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–
2007 (Lopez-Claros, Porter, Schwab, Sala-i-Martin, 2006).
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