1 A strong defense of Latin American studies as an area- study program is made
in Harvey L. Johnson 1961. On the strength acquired by Latin American studies in
the 1960s, see Hanke 1967. For a Latin American perspective on Latin American
studies, see Osorio Tejeda 2007. For a critical appraisal of Latin American liter-
ary studies, see de la Campa 1999.
2 On the history and signiﬁcance of the Pan- Americanist movement, see Fagg 1982;
Gilderhus 1986; Crapol 2000; and Sheinin 2000a.
3 In 1881, Blaine called the states of the hemi sphere to attend a Pan- American con-
ference. His ideas about U.S. hemispheric hegemony through peace and commer-
cial reciprocity started to develop after the French occupation of Mexico in 1864
(Crapol 2000, 10–21, 73).
4 On the Good Neighbor Policy, see Wood 1967; Green 1971; Gellman 1979; Ninkov-
ich 1981; and Haglund 1984. On the U.S. policy of disengaging from Ca ribbean
dependencies, see Perkins 1981.
5 In the area of history, a more in- depth study of Brazil developed only in the 1950s
and 1960s. See Shepherd 1933; and John J. Johnson 1985. Duke University had
started collecting Brazilian materials early. See Manchester 1933.
6 John Barrett was the director of the International Bureau of the American Repub-
lics from 1907 to 1910, then the director of the Pan- American Union until 1920. He
promoted U.S. economic expansionism in South America, and strove to transform
the Monroe Doctrine into a multilateral policy. See Prisco 1973.
7 Vision is an element constitutive of “evidence” in Enlightenment and modern
notions of science and legal pro cesses. Enhanced visibility is the capacity “to see” be-
yond our own limited horizon of sight, by means of other instruments: telescopes,
maps, treatises, inquiries, dictionaries, and cata logs. In actuality, I am not talking of
the eye’s capacity, but of the human intellect’s ability to imagine larger regions and