This book owes its existence to the support of many people. With un-
abashed nostalgia, I thank its catalysts: Warren Bennis for introducing me
to organizations, David R. Shumway for explaining practice until I finally
got it, and David J. Sylvan for encouraging me to do fieldwork.
Generous colleagues read draft chapters and the whole manuscript,
sometimes more than once: Andrew Elfenbein, Judith Kegan Gardiner,
Evelyn Fox Keller, Annette Kolodny, Bruce Lincoln, Jean O’Barr, Richard
Ohmann, Diana Saco, Larry Shillock, David Shumway, and Madelon
Sprengnether. The kind comments of sociologists, historians, and political
scientists on parts of this book or my related work on social movement
organizations assuaged my disciplinary fears: Paul DiMaggio, Stanley N.
Katz, Elizabeth Long, Robert Pahre, and Dorothy E. Smith. Audiences
who heard excerpts from the book in progress at conferences sponsored
by the Modern Language Association, American Studies Association,
American Association of Higher Education, and assorted universities sup-
plied encouragement, and reviewers for Duke University Press made help-
Behind-the-scenes wizards made my research possible. Graduate re-
search assistants cheerfully proofed the prose, checked the citations, and
somehow kept track of the library books: Larry Shillock, James W. Maer-
tens, Andrea Ghorai, Karen Roggenkamp, Megan Casey, and David Noon.
O≈cials helped me obtain otherwise inaccessible materials: Alexander D.
Crary (National Endowment for the Arts), John Hammer (National Hu-
manities Alliance), and Kevin Lane (O≈ce of Sen. Paul Wellstone). Li-
brary directors extended the usual and unusual library privileges: Chris-
topher Loring (Director of Reference and Consulting Services, Wilson